django 快速实现完整登录系统(cookie)


 

  经过前面几节的练习,我们已经熟悉了django 的套路,这里来实现一个比较完整的登陆系统,其中包括注册、登陆、以及cookie的使用。

本操作的环境:

===================

deepin linux 2013(基于ubuntu)

python 2.7

Django 1.6.2

===================

 

创建项目与应用                                                                                     

 

#创建项目
fnngj@fnngj-H24X:~/djpy$ django-admin.py startproject mysite5
fnngj@fnngj-H24X:~/djpy$ cd mysite5
#在项目下创建一个online应用
fnngj@fnngj-H24X:~/djpy/mysite5$ python manage.py startapp online

目录结构如下:

打开mysite5/mysite5/settings.py文件,将应用添加进去:

# Application definition
 INSTALLED_APPS = ( 'django.contrib.admin', 'django.contrib.auth', 'django.contrib.contenttypes', 'django.contrib.sessions', 'django.contrib.messages', 'django.contrib.staticfiles', 'online', )

 

 

设计数据库                                                                                              

 

打开mysite5/online/models.py文件,添加如下内容:

from django.db import models # Create your models here.
class User(models.Model): username = models.CharField(max_length=50) password = models.CharField(max_length=50) def __unicode__(self): return self.username

创建数据库,创建User表,用户名和密码两个字段。

下面进行数据库的同步:

fnngj@fnngj-H24X:~/djpy/mysite5$ python manage.py syncdb
Creating tables ...
Creating table django_admin_log
Creating table auth_permission
Creating table auth_group_permissions
Creating table auth_group
Creating table auth_user_groups
Creating table auth_user_user_permissions
Creating table auth_user
Creating table django_content_type
Creating table django_session
Creating table online_user
You just installed Django's auth system, which means you don't have any superusers defined.
Would you like to create one now? (yes/no): yes 输入yes/no

Username (leave blank to use 'fnngj'):    用户名(默认当前系统用户名)
Email address: fnngj@126.com 邮箱地址
Password:    密码
Password (again):    确认密码
Superuser created successfully.
Installing custom SQL ...
Installing indexes ...
Installed 0 object(s) from 0 fixture(s)

最后生成的 online_user 表就是我们models.py 中所创建的User类。

 

 

配置URL                                                                                                  

 

打开mysite5/mysite5/urls.py:

from django.conf.urls import patterns, include, url from django.contrib import admin admin.autodiscover() urlpatterns = patterns('', # Examples:
    # url(r'^$', 'mysite5.views.home', name='home'),
 url(r'^admin/', include(admin.site.urls)), url(r'^online/', include('online.urls')), )

 

在mysite5/online/目录下创建urls.py文件:

from django.conf.urls import patterns, url from online import views urlpatterns = patterns('', url(r'^$', views.login, name='login'), url(r'^login/$',views.login,name = 'login'), url(r'^regist/$',views.regist,name = 'regist'), url(r'^index/$',views.index,name = 'index'), url(r'^logout/$',views.logout,name = 'logout'), )

 

http://127.0.0.1:8000/online/    登陆页

http://127.0.0.1:8000/online/login/  登陆页

http://127.0.0.1:8000/online/regist/   注册页

http://127.0.0.1:8000/online/index/    登陆成功页  

http://127.0.0.1:8000/online/logout/   注销

 

 

创建视图                                                                                                  

 

打开mysite5/online/views.py 文件:

#coding=utf-8
from django.shortcuts import render,render_to_response from django.http import HttpResponse,HttpResponseRedirect from django.template import RequestContext from django import forms from models import User #表单
class UserForm(forms.Form): username = forms.CharField(label='用户名',max_length=100) password = forms.CharField(label='密码',widget=forms.PasswordInput()) #注册
def regist(req): if req.method == 'POST': uf = UserForm(req.POST) if uf.is_valid(): #获得表单数据
            username = uf.cleaned_data['username'] password = uf.cleaned_data['password'] #添加到数据库
            User.objects.create(username= username,password=password) return HttpResponse('regist success!!') else: uf = UserForm() return render_to_response('regist.html',{'uf':uf}, context_instance=RequestContext(req)) #登陆
def login(req): if req.method == 'POST': uf = UserForm(req.POST) if uf.is_valid(): #获取表单用户密码
            username = uf.cleaned_data['username'] password = uf.cleaned_data['password'] #获取的表单数据与数据库进行比较
            user = User.objects.filter(username__exact = username,password__exact = password) if user: #比较成功,跳转index
                response = HttpResponseRedirect('/online/index/') #将username写入浏览器cookie,失效时间为3600
                response.set_cookie('username',username,3600) return response else: #比较失败,还在login
                return HttpResponseRedirect('/online/login/') else: uf = UserForm() return render_to_response('login.html',{'uf':uf},context_instance=RequestContext(req)) #登陆成功
def index(req): username = req.COOKIES.get('username','') return render_to_response('index.html' ,{'username':username}) #退出
def logout(req): response = HttpResponse('logout !!') #清理cookie里保存username
    response.delete_cookie('username') return response

这里实现了所有注册,登陆逻辑,中间用到cookie创建,读取,删除操作等。

 

 

创建模板                                                                                                  

 

先在mysite5/online/目录下创建templates目录,接着在mysite5/online/templates/目录下创建regist.html 文件:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
<head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" />
    <title>注册</title>
</head>

<body>
<h1>注册页面:</h1>
<form method = 'post' enctype="multipart/form-data"> {% csrf_token %} {{uf.as_p}} <input type="submit" value = "ok" />
</form>
<br>
<a href="http://127.0.0.1:8000/online/login/">登陆</a>
</body>
</html>

mysite5/online/templates/目录下创建login.html 文件:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
<head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" />
    <title>登陆</title>
</head>

<body>
<h1>登陆页面:</h1>
<form method = 'post' enctype="multipart/form-data"> {% csrf_token %} {{uf.as_p}} <input type="submit" value = "ok" />
</form>
<br>
<a href="http://127.0.0.1:8000/online/regist/">注册</a>
</body>
</html>

mysite5/online/templates/目录下创建index.html 文件:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
<head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" />
    <title></title>
</head>

<body>
<h1>welcome {{username}} !</h1>
<br>
<a href="http://127.0.0.1:8000/online/logout/">退出</a>
</body>
</html>

 

设置模板路径

打开mysite5/mysite5/settings.py文件,在底部添加:

#template
TEMPLATE_DIRS=( '/home/fnngj/djpy/mysite5/online/templates' )

 

 

使用功能                                                                                                  

 

注册

先注册用户:

注册成功,提示regist success!!”

 

登陆

执行登陆操作,通过读取浏览器cookie 来获取用户名

 

查看cookie

 

登陆成功

通过点击退出”链接退出,再次访问http://127.0.0.1:8000/online/index/ 将不会显示用户名信息。

 

 

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