Cypress前端E2E自动化测试


近期用Cypress作一个新项目的前端E2E自动化测试,对比TestCafe作前端E2E自动化测试,Cypress有一些不同之处,现记录下来。

所有Command都是异步的

Cypress中的所有Command都是异步的,所以编写自动化脚本时要时刻记住这点。比如:

不能从Command中直接返回,而要用 .then() 来处理。下面例子不工作:

const allProductes = cy.get('@allProductes') 

正确的应当用

let allProductes = null; cy.get('@allProductes').then((values) => { allProductes = values; } 

还有一例,下面代码也不能正常工作,是因为在一个代码块中,所有command都是异步先入队列,只有代码块结束后才会依次执行:

it('is not using aliases correctly', function () { cy.fixture('users.json').as('users') // 此处as还没有执行呢,只是入了队列而已 const user = this.users[0] }) 

正确的应当仍然是要用 .then() 范式:

cy.fixture('users.json').then((users) => { const user = users[0] // passes cy.get('header').should('contain', user.name) }) 

这样的结果就是,测试代码中难免出现很多的回调函数嵌套。

同样,因为Cypress命令是异步的,所以debugger也要在 then() 里调用,不能象下面这样:

it('let me debug like a fiend', function() { cy.visit('/my/page/path') cy.get('.selector-in-question') debugger // Doesn't work }) // cy.pause() 

上下文中的this不能用在箭头函数中

当用Mocha的共享上下文对象机制时, this 不能用在箭头函数,要用传统的函数形式

beforeEach(function () { cy.fixture('product').as('allProductes'); cy.gotoIndexPage(); }) ... phonePage.actRootSel.forEach((actSel, index) => { cy.get(actSel + phonePage.btnExchangeSel, {timeout: Cypress.env('timeoutLevel1')}).click(); cy.get(rechargePage.sidebarSel).should('exist'); cy.get(rechargePage.sidebarSel).within(function ($sidebar) { productName = this.allProductes[index].product; cy.get(rechargePage.productNameSel).should('have.text', productName); gameCount = UTILS.randomPhoneNo('1323434'); cy.get(rechargePage.gameCountSel).type(gameCount); cy.get(rechargePage.btnRechargeSel).should('have.text', '支付 ' + this.allProductes[index].jfValue + ' 积分'); cy.get(rechargePage.btnRechargeSel).click(); }); ... 

如上所示,在within的回调函数中用了 function ($sidebar) { 这样形式,而不能用箭头函数。为了避免这样的麻烦,可以考虑用 cy.get('@*') 来获取上下文中变量。但那样又要面对异步的问题(注: cy.get 是异步的,而 this.* 是同步的),还得用 then() 来解决问题,有些两难。

Mocha的共享上下文对象会在所有可用的hook和test之间共享。而且每个测试结束后,会自动全部清除。正是因为有这样的上下文共享机制,可以在test和hook之间共享变量或别名,要么用闭包 this.* 形式,要么用 .as(*) 这样的形式,实际上cy.get(@*) 相当于 cy.wrap(this.*)。而且还可以在多层级中共享:

describe('parent', function () { beforeEach(function () { cy.wrap('one').as('a') }) context('child', function () { beforeEach(function () { cy.wrap('two').as('b') }) describe('grandchild', function () { beforeEach(function () { cy.wrap('three').as('c') }) it('can access all aliases as properties', function () { expect(this.a).to.eq('one') // true expect(this.b).to.eq('two') // true expect(this.c).to.eq('three') // true }) }) }) }) 

 

强大的重试机制

Cypress有缺省的重试(re-try)机制,会在执行时进行一些内置的assertion,然后才超时,两种超时缺省值都是4秒:

  • command操作的timeout

  • assertion的timeout

Cypress一般只在几个查找DOM元素的命令如 cy.get()find()contains() 上重试,但决不会在一些可能改变应用程序状态的command上重试(比如 click() 等)。但是有些command,比如 eq 就算后面没有紧跟assertion,它也会重试。

你可以修改每个command的timeout值,这个timeout时间会影响到本command和其下联接的所有assertion的超时时间,所以不要在command后面的assertion上人工指定timeout。

cy.get(actSel + phonePage.btnExchangeSel, { timeout: Cypress.env('timeoutLevel1') }).click(); ... cy.location({ timeout: Cypress.env('timeoutLevel2') }).should((loc) => { expect(loc.toString()).to.eq(Cypress.env('gatewayUrl')); }); 

紧接着command的assertion失败后,重试时会重新运行command去查询dom元素然后再次assert,直到超时或成功。多个assertion也一样,每次重试时本次失败的assertion都会把之前成功的assertion顺便再次assert。

.and() 实际上是 .should() 的别名,同样可用于传入callback的方式。

cy.get('.todo-list li') // command .should('have.length', 2) // assertion .and(($li) => { // 2 more assertions expect($li.get(0).textContent, 'first item').to.equal('todo a') expect($li.get(1).textContent, 'second item').to.equal('todo B') }) 

注意:重试机制只会作用在最后一个command上,解决方法一般有下面两种。

解决方法一 :仅用一个命令来选择元素

// not recommended // only the last "its" will be retried cy.window() .its('app') // runs once .its('model') // runs once .its('todos') // retried .should('have.length', 2) // recommended cy.window() .its('app.model.todos') // retried .should('have.length', 2) 

顺便提一下,assertion都最好用最长最准确的定位元素方式,要不然偶尔会出现"detached from the DOM"这样的错误,比如:

cy.get('.list') .contains('li', 'Hello') .should('be.visible') 

这是因为在 cy.get('.list') 时, .list 被当作了subject存了起来,如果中途DOM发生了变化,就会出现上面的错误了。改为:

cy.contains('.list li', 'Hello') .should('be.visible') 

所以,最好用最精确的定位方式,而不要用方法链的形式。cypress定位元素时不但可以用CSS选择器,还可以用JQuery的方式,比如:

// get first element cy.get('.something').first() cy.get('.something:first-child') // get last element cy.get('.something').last() cy.get('.something:last-child') // get second element cy.get('.something').eq(1) cy.get('.something:nth-child(2)') 

解决方法二 :在命令后及时再加一个合适的assertion,导致它及时自动重试掉当前元素(即“过程中”元素)

cy
  .get('.mobile-nav', { timeout: 10000 }) .should('be.visible') .and('contain', 'Home') 

这样处理后,在判断 .mobile-nav 存在于DOM中、可见、包括Home子串这三种情况下,都会等待最大10秒。

强大的别名机制

用于Fixture

这是最常用的用途,比如:

beforeEach(function () { // alias the users fixtures cy.fixture('users.json').as('users') }) it('utilize users in some way', function () { // access the users property const user = this.users[0] // make sure the header contains the first // user's name cy.get('header').should('contain', user.name) }) 

数据驱动的自动化测试,就可以考虑用这样的方式读取数据文件。

用于查找DOM

个人很少用这个方式,因为没有带来什么的好处。

// alias all of the tr's found in the table as 'rows' cy.get('table').find('tr').as('rows') // Cypress returns the reference to the <tr>'s // which allows us to continue to chain commands // finding the 1st row. cy.get('@rows').first().click() 

注意:用alias定议dom时,最好一次精确倒位而不要用命令链的方式,当cy.get参照别名元素时,当参照的元素不存在时,Cypress也会再用生成别名的命令再查询一次。但正如所知的,cypress的re-try机制只会在最近yield的subject上才起作用,所以一定要用一次精确倒位的选择元素方式。

cy.get('#nav header .user').as('user') (good) cy.get('#nav').find('header').find('.user').as('user') (bad) 

用于Router

用来设置桩
cy.server() // we set the response to be the activites.json fixture cy.route('GET', 'activities/*', 'fixture:activities.json') cy.server() cy.fixture('activities.json').as('activitiesJSON') cy.route('GET', 'activities/*', '@activitiesJSON') 
等待xhr的回应
cy.server() cy.route('activities/*', 'fixture:activities').as('getActivities') cy.route('messages/*', 'fixture:messages').as('getMessages') // visit the dashboard, which should make requests that match // the two routes above cy.visit('http://localhost:8888/dashboard') // pass an array of Route Aliases that forces Cypress to wait // until it sees a response for each request that matches // each of these aliases cy.wait(['@getActivities', '@getMessages']) cy.server() cy.route({ method: 'POST', url: '/myApi', }).as('apiCheck') cy.visit('/') cy.wait('@apiCheck').then((xhr) => { assert.isNotNull(xhr.response.body.data, '1st API call has data') }) cy.wait('@apiCheck').then((xhr) => { assert.isNotNull(xhr.response.body.data, '2nd API call has data') }) 
断言HXR的回应内容
    // 先侦听topay请求 cy.server(); cy.route({ method: 'POST', url: Cypress.env('prePaymentURI'), }).as('toPay'); ... // 从topay请求中获取网关单 cy.wait('@toPay').then((xhr) => { expect(xhr.responseBody).to.have.property('data'); cy.log(xhr.responseBody.data); let reg = /name="orderno" value="(.*?)"/; kpoOrderId = xhr.responseBody.data.match(reg)[1]; cy.log(kpoOrderId); // 自定义命令去成功支付 cy.paySuccess(kpoOrderId); // 校验订单情况 validateOrderItem(productName, gameCount); }); ... 

环境

Cypress的环境相关机制是分层级、优先级的,后面的会覆盖前面的方式。

如果在cypress.json中有一个 env key后,它的值可以用 Cypress.env()获取出来:

// cypress.json { "projectId": "128076ed-9868-4e98-9cef-98dd8b705d75", "env": { "foo": "bar", "some": "value" } } Cypress.env() // {foo: 'bar', some: 'value'} Cypress.env('foo') // 'bar' 

如果直接放在cypress.env.json后,会覆盖掉cypress.json中的值。这样可以把cypress.env.json放到 .gitignore 文件中,每个环境都将隔离:

// cypress.env.json { "host": "veronica.dev.local", "api_server": "http://localhost:8888/api/v1/" } Cypress.env() // {host: 'veronica.dev.local', api_server: 'http://localhost:8888/api/v1'} Cypress.env('host') // 'veronica.dev.local' 

CYPRESS_cypress_ 打头的环境变量,Cypress会自动处理:

export CYPRESS_HOST=laura.dev.local export cypress_api_server=http://localhost:8888/api/v1/ Cypress.env() // {HOST: 'laura.dev.local', api_server: 'http://localhost:8888/api/v1'} Cypress.env('HOST') // 'laura.dev.local' Cypress.env('api_server') // 'http://localhost:8888/api/v1/' 

最后,还是要以用 --env 环境变量来指定环境变量:

cypress run --env host=kevin.dev.local,api_server=http://localhost:8888/api/v1 Cypress.env() // {host: 'kevin.dev.local', api_server: 'http://localhost:8888/api/v1'} Cypress.env('host') // 'kevin.dev.local' Cypress.env('api_server') // 'http://localhost:8888/api/v1/' 

环境还能在在 plugins/index.js 中处理:

module.exports = (on, config) => { // we can grab some process environment variables // and stick it into config.env before returning the updated config config.env = config.env || {} // you could extract only specific variables // and rename them if necessary config.env.FOO = process.env.FOO config.env.BAR = process.env.BAR console.log('extended config.env with process.env.{FOO, BAR}') return config } // 在spec文件中,都用Cypress.env()来获取 it('has variables FOO and BAR from process.env', () => { // FOO=42 BAR=baz cypress open // see how FOO and BAR were copied in "cypress/plugins/index.js" expect(Cypress.env()).to.contain({ FOO: '42', BAR: 'baz' }) }) 

自定义Command

自定义一些命令可以简化测试脚本,以下举两个例子。

简化选择元素

Cypress.Commands.add('dataCy', (value) => cy.get(`[data-cy=${value}]`)) ... it('finds element using data-cy custom command', () => { cy.visit('index.html') // use custom command we have defined above cy.dataCy('greeting').should('be.visible') }) 

模拟登录

Cypress.addParentCommand("login", function(email, password){ var email = email || "joe@example.com" var password = password || "foobar" var log = Cypress.Log.command({ name: "login", message: [email, password], consoleProps: function(){ return { email: email, password: password } } }) cy .visit("/login", {log: false}) .contains("Log In", {log: false}) .get("#email", {log: false}).type(email, {log: false}) .get("#password", {log: false}).type(password, {log: false}) .get("button", {log: false}).click({log: false}) //this should submit the form .get("h1", {log: false}).contains("Dashboard", {log: false}) //we should be on the dashboard now .url({log: false}).should("match", /dashboard/, {log: false}) .then(function(){ log.snapshot().end() }) }) 

模拟支付请求

Cypress.Commands.add("paySuccess", (kpoOrderId, overrides = {}) => { const log = overrides.log || true; const timeout = overrides.timeout || Cypress.config('defaultCommandTimeout'); Cypress.log({ name: 'paySuccess', message: 'KPO order id: ' + kpoOrderId }); const options = { log: log, timeout: timeout, method: 'POST', url: Cypress.env('paymentUrl'), form: true, qs: { orderNo: kpoOrderId, notifyUrl: Cypress.env('notifyUrl'), returnUrl: Cypress.env('returnUrl') + kpoOrderId, }, }; Cypress._.extend(options, overrides); cy.request(options); }); ... // 在spec文件中 // 从页面获取网关单 cy.get('input[name="orderNo"]').then(($id) => { kpoOrderId = $id.val(); cy.log(kpoOrderId); // 自定义命令去成功支付 cy.paySuccess(kpoOrderId); // 校验订单情况 // 因为cypress所有命令都是异步的,所以只能放在这,不能放到then之外! validateOrderItem(productName, gameCount); }); 

Cookie处理

Cookies.debug() 允许在cookie被改变时,会记录日志在console上:

Cypress.Cookies.debug(true) 

Cypress会在每个test运行前自动的清掉所有的cookie。但可以用 preserveOnce() 来在多个test之间保留cookie,这在有登录要求的自动化测试方面很方便。

describe('Dashboard', function () { before(function () { cy.login() }) beforeEach(function () { // before each test, we can automatically preserve the // 'session_id' and 'remember_token' cookies. this means they // will not be cleared before the NEXT test starts. Cypress.Cookies.preserveOnce('session_id', 'remember_token') }) it('displays stats', function () { }) it('can do something', function () { }) }) 

最后,也可以用全局白名单来让Cypress不在每个test前清cookie。

登录的几种方法

Cypress可以直接处理cookie,所以直接表单登录和模拟POST请求就可以登录了。如果是cookie/session方式,还要留意要在test之间手工保留cookie,请见Cookie处理部分。

    // 直接提交表单,凭证入cookie中,登录成功 it('redirects to /dashboard on success', function () { cy.get('input[name=username]').type(username) cy.get('input[name=password]').type(password) cy.get('form').submit() // we should be redirected to /dashboard cy.url().should('include', '/dashboard') cy.get('h1').should('contain', 'jane.lane') // and our cookie should be set to 'cypress-session-cookie' cy.getCookie('cypress-session-cookie').should('exist') }) 
  // 自定义命令发请求,但还有csrf隐藏域 Cypress.Commands.add('loginByCSRF', (csrfToken) => { cy.request({ method: 'POST', url: '/login', failOnStatusCode: false, // dont fail so we can make assertions form: true, // we are submitting a regular form body body: { username, password, _csrf: csrfToken // insert this as part of form body } }) }) // csrf在返回的html中 it('strategy #1: parse token from HTML', function(){ // if we cannot change our server code to make it easier // to parse out the CSRF token, we can simply use cy.request // to fetch the login page, and then parse the HTML contents // to find the CSRF token embedded in the page cy.request('/login') .its('body') .then((body) => { // we can use Cypress.$ to parse the string body // thus enabling us to query into it easily const $html = Cypress.$(body) const csrf = $html.find("input[name=_csrf]").val() cy.loginByCSRF(csrf) .then((resp) => { expect(resp.status).to.eq(200) expect(resp.body).to.include("<h2>dashboard.html</h2>") }) }) ... }) // 如果csrf在响应头中 it('strategy #2: parse token from response headers', function(){ // if we embed our csrf-token in response headers // it makes it much easier for us to pluck it out // without having to dig into the resulting HTML cy.request('/login') .its('headers') .then((headers) => { const csrf = headers['x-csrf-token'] cy.loginByCSRF(csrf) .then((resp) => { expect(resp.status).to.eq(200) expect(resp.body).to.include("<h2>dashboard.html</h2>") }) }) ... }) 
// 登录凭证不自动存入cookie,需手工操作 describe('Logging in when XHR is slow', function(){ const username = 'jane.lane' const password = 'password123' const sessionCookieName = 'cypress-session-cookie' // the XHR endpoint /slow-login takes a couple of seconds // we so don't want to login before each test // instead we want to get the session cookie just ONCE before the tests before(function () { cy.request({ method: 'POST', url: '/slow-login', body: { username, password } }) // cy.getCookie automatically waits for the previous // command cy.request to finish // we ensure we have a valid cookie value and // save it in the test context object "this.sessionCookie" // that's why we use "function () { ... }" callback form cy.getCookie(sessionCookieName) .should('exist') .its('value') .should('be.a', 'string') .as('sessionCookie') }) beforeEach(function () { // before each test we just set the cookie value // making the login instant. Since we want to access // the test context "this.sessionCookie" property // we need to use "function () { ... }" callback form cy.setCookie(sessionCookieName, this.sessionCookie) }) it('loads the dashboard as an authenticated user', function(){ cy.visit('/dashboard') cy.contains('h1', 'jane.lane') }) it('loads the admin view as an authenticated user', function(){ cy.visit('/admin') cy.contains('h1', 'Admin') }) }) 

如果是jwt,可以手工设置jwt

// login just once using API let user before(function fetchUser () { cy.request('POST', 'http://localhost:4000/users/authenticate', { username: Cypress.env('username'), password: Cypress.env('password'), }) .its('body') .then((res) => { user = res }) }) // but set the user before visiting the page // so the app thinks it is already authenticated beforeEach(function setUser () { cy.visit('/', { onBeforeLoad (win) { // and before the page finishes loading // set the user object in local storage win.localStorage.setItem('user', JSON.stringify(user)) }, }) // the page should be opened and the user should be logged in }) ... // use token it('makes authenticated request', () => { // we can make authenticated request ourselves // since we know the token cy.request({ url: 'http://localhost:4000/users', auth: { bearer: user.token, }, }) .its('body') .should('deep.equal', [ { id: 1, username: 'test', firstName: 'Test', lastName: 'User', }, ]) }) 

拖放处理

Cyprss中处理拖放很容易,在test runner中调试也很方便。

用mouse事件

// A drag and drop action is made up of a mousedown event, // multiple mousemove events, and a mouseup event // (we can get by with just one mousemove event for our test, // even though there would be dozens in a normal interaction) // // For the mousedown, we specify { which: 1 } because dragula will // ignore a mousedown if it's not a left click // // On mousemove, we need to specify where we're moving // with clientX and clientY function movePiece (number, x, y) { cy.get(`.piece-${number}`) .trigger('mousedown', { which: 1 }) .trigger('mousemove', { clientX: x, clientY: y }) .trigger('mouseup', {force: true}) } 

用拖放事件

// 定义拖放方法 function dropBallInHoop (index) { cy.get('.balls img').first() .trigger('dragstart') cy.get('.hoop') .trigger('drop') } // 或手工处理 it('highlights hoop when ball is dragged over it', function(){ cy.get('.hoop') .trigger('dragenter') .should('have.class', 'over') }) it('unhighlights hoop when ball is dragged out of it', function(){ cy.get('.hoop') .trigger('dragenter') .should('have.class', 'over') .trigger('dragleave') .should('not.have.class', 'over') }) 

动态生成test

动态生成test,经常出现在数据驱动的场合下

用不同的屏幕测试

// run the same test against different viewport resolution const sizes = ['iphone-6', 'ipad-2', [1024, 768]] sizes.forEach((size) => { it(`displays logo on ${size} screen`, () => { if (Cypress._.isArray(size)) { cy.viewport(size[0], size[1]) } else { cy.viewport(size) } cy.visit('https://www.cypress.io') cy.get(logoSelector).should('be.visible') }) }) }) 

数据驱动,数据可以来源于fixture,也可以来源于实时请求或task!

context('dynamic users', () => { // invoke:Invoke a function on the previously yielded subject. before(() => { cy.request('https://jsonplaceholder.cypress.io/users?limit=3') .its('body') .should('have.length', 10) .invoke('slice', 0, 3) .as('users') // the above lines "invoke" + "as" are equivalent to // .then((list) => { // this.users = list.slice(0, 3) // }) }) describe('fetched users', () => { Cypress._.range(0, 3).forEach((k) => { it(`# ${k}`, function () { const user = this.users[k] cy.log(`user ${user.name} ${user.email}`) cy.wrap(user).should('have.property', 'name') }) }) }) }) 
// plugins/index.js中 module.exports = (on, config) => { on('task', { getData () { return ['a', 'b', 'c'] }, }) } ... context('generated using cy.task', () => { before(() => { cy.task('getData').as('letters') }) describe('dynamic letters', () => { it('has fetched letters', function () { expect(this.letters).to.be.an('array') }) Cypress._.range(0, 3).forEach((k) => { it(`tests letter #${k}`, function () { const letter = this.letters[k] cy.wrap(letter).should('match', /a|b|c/) }) }) }) }) 

杂项

  • fixture文件不会被test runner 的"live mode" watched到,修改它后,只能手工重新跑测试。
  • Cypress只能检查到Ajax请求,不能检查到Fetch和其它比如<script>发出的请求。这是个很大的问题,一直没有解决。要 polyfill 掉Fetch API才行。但这样实际上对被测应用有些改动了。
// 先npm install cypress-unfetch // 再在supports/index.js中import即可 import '@rckeller/cypress-unfetch' 
  • Cypress的command返回的不是promise,而是包装过的。但可以用 then 把yield的subject传递下去。而且在 then() 中得到的是最近的一个command里yield的subject。可以用 .end() 来结束这个yield链,让其后的Command不收到前面yield的subject:
cy
  .contains('User: Cheryl').click().end() // yield null .contains('User: Charles').click() // contains looks for content in document now 

其实,完全可以都用 cy. 重新开始一个新的调用链

cy.contains('User: Cheryl').click() cy.contains('User: Charles').click() // contains looks for content in document now 
  • 当指定baseUrl配置项后,Cypress会忽略掉 cy.visit()cy.request() 中的url。当没有baseUrl配置项设定时,Cypress会用localhost加随机端口的方式来先运行,然后遇一以了 cy.visit()cy.request() 会再变化请求的url,这样会有一点点闪烁或reload的情况。所以指定的baseUrl后,能节省点启动时间。
  • 录制video现在只能被Electron这个浏览器支持。
  • 判断元素是否存在,走不同的条件逻辑,用Cypress内置的JQuery:
const $el = Cypress.$('.greeting') if ($el.length) { cy.log('Closing greeting') cy.get('.greeting') .contains('Close') .click() } cy.get('.greeting') .should('not.be.visible') 
  • 测试对象可以用 this.test 访问,测试的的名字可以用 this.test.title 获得,但在hook中它却是hook的名字!
  • 测试脚本是执行在浏览器中的,包括引入的javascript模块。Cypress用babel和browserify预处理它们。Cypress只能和 cy.task()cy.exec() 分别执行Node和Shell。但是要小心:只有 taskexec 执行终止后,Cypress才会继续运行!
  • contains 断言可以跨多个简单的文本形的元素,比如<span>或<strong>,也能成功
cy.get('.todo-count').contains('3 items left') 
  • within 在定位层级多的元素时非常好用
cy.get(orderlistPage.orderItemRootSel, { timeout: Cypress.env('timeoutLevel3') }).first().within(($item) => { cy.get(orderlistPage.orderItemProductNameSel).should('have.text', productName); cy.get(orderlistPage.orderItemGameCountSel).first().should('have.text', gameCount); cy.get(orderlistPage.orderItemStateSel).should('have.text', orderState); }) 
  • fixture 文档可以当作模块来引入
const allProductes = require('../../fixtures/product'); 
  • 忽略页面未处理异常
// ignore errors from the site itself Cypress.on('uncaught:exception', () => { return false }) 
  • hook可以放到 supports/*.js
  • 给window加入定制属性,test中可以用 cy.window 得到window对象
it('can modify window._bootstrappedData', function () { const data = { ... } cy.visit('/bootstrap.html', { onBeforeLoad: (win) => { win._bootstrappedData = data }, }) ... 
  • 底层交互元素
it('updates range value when moving slider', function(){ // To interact with a range input (slider), we need to set its value and // then trigger the appropriate event to signal it has changed // Here, we invoke jQuery's val() method to set the value // and trigger the 'change' event // Note that some implementations may rely on the 'input' event, // which is fired as a user moves the slider, but is not supported // by some browsers cy.get('input[type=range]').as('range') .invoke('val', 25) .trigger('change') cy.get('@range').siblings('p') .should('have.text', '25') }) 
  • 处理不可交互的元素时,可以给Command传递 {force: true} 这个选项
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