SpringBoot内置tomcat启动原理


前言

不得不说SpringBoot的开发者是在为大众程序猿谋福利,把大家都惯成了懒汉,xml不配置了,连tomcat也懒的配置了,典型的一键启动系统,那么tomcat在springboot是怎么启动的呢?

内置tomcat

开发阶段对我们来说使用内置的tomcat是非常够用了,当然也可以使用jetty。

<dependency>
   <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
   <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
   <version>2.1.6.RELEASE</version>
</dependency>
@SpringBootApplication
public class MySpringbootTomcatStarter{
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Long time=System.currentTimeMillis();
        SpringApplication.run(MySpringbootTomcatStarter.class);
        System.out.println("===应用启动耗时:"+(System.currentTimeMillis()-time)+"===");
    }
}

这里是main函数入口,两句代码最耀眼,分别是SpringBootApplication注解和SpringApplication.run()方法。

发布生产

发布的时候,目前大多数的做法还是排除内置的tomcat,打瓦包(war)然后部署在生产的tomcat中,好吧,那打包的时候应该怎么处理?

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
    <!-- 移除嵌入式tomcat插件 -->
    <exclusions>
        <exclusion>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-tomcat</artifactId>
        </exclusion>
    </exclusions>
</dependency>
<!--添加servlet-api依赖--->
<dependency>
    <groupId>javax.servlet</groupId>
    <artifactId>javax.servlet-api</artifactId>
    <version>3.1.0</version>
    <scope>provided</scope>
</dependency>

更新main函数,主要是继承SpringBootServletInitializer,并重写configure()方法。

@SpringBootApplication
public class MySpringbootTomcatStarter extends SpringBootServletInitializer {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Long time=System.currentTimeMillis();
        SpringApplication.run(MySpringbootTomcatStarter.class);
        System.out.println("===应用启动耗时:"+(System.currentTimeMillis()-time)+"===");
    }

    @Override
    protected SpringApplicationBuilder configure(SpringApplicationBuilder builder) {
        return builder.sources(this.getClass());
    }
}

从main函数说起

public static ConfigurableApplicationContext run(Class<?> primarySource, String... args) {
    return run(new Class[]{primarySource}, args);
}

--这里run方法返回的是ConfigurableApplicationContext
public static ConfigurableApplicationContext run(Class<?>[] primarySources, String[] args) {
	return (new SpringApplication(primarySources)).run(args);
}
public ConfigurableApplicationContext run(String... args) {
	ConfigurableApplicationContext context = null;
	Collection<SpringBootExceptionReporter> exceptionReporters = new ArrayList();
	this.configureHeadlessProperty();
	SpringApplicationRunListeners listeners = this.getRunListeners(args);
	listeners.starting();

	Collection exceptionReporters;
	try {
		ApplicationArguments applicationArguments = new DefaultApplicationArguments(args);
		ConfigurableEnvironment environment = this.prepareEnvironment(listeners, applicationArguments);
		this.configureIgnoreBeanInfo(environment);
		
		//打印banner,这里你可以自己涂鸦一下,换成自己项目的logo
		Banner printedBanner = this.printBanner(environment);
		
		//创建应用上下文
		context = this.createApplicationContext();
		exceptionReporters = this.getSpringFactoriesInstances(SpringBootExceptionReporter.class, new Class[]{ConfigurableApplicationContext.class}, context);

		//预处理上下文
		this.prepareContext(context, environment, listeners, applicationArguments, printedBanner);
		
		//刷新上下文
		this.refreshContext(context);
		
		//再刷新上下文
		this.afterRefresh(context, applicationArguments);
		
		listeners.started(context);
		this.callRunners(context, applicationArguments);
	} catch (Throwable var10) {
		
	}

	try {
		listeners.running(context);
		return context;
	} catch (Throwable var9) {
		
	}
}

既然我们想知道tomcat在SpringBoot中是怎么启动的,那么run方法中,重点关注创建应用上下文(createApplicationContext)和刷新上下文(refreshContext)。

创建上下文

//创建上下文
protected ConfigurableApplicationContext createApplicationContext() {
	Class<?> contextClass = this.applicationContextClass;
	if (contextClass == null) {
		try {
			switch(this.webApplicationType) {
				case SERVLET:
                    //创建AnnotationConfigServletWebServerApplicationContext
				    contextClass = Class.forName("org.springframework.boot.web.servlet.context.AnnotationConfigServletWebServerApplicationContext");
					break;
				case REACTIVE:
					contextClass = Class.forName("org.springframework.boot.web.reactive.context.AnnotationConfigReactiveWebServerApplicationContext");
					break;
				default:
					contextClass = Class.forName("org.springframework.context.annotation.AnnotationConfigApplicationContext");
			}
		} catch (ClassNotFoundException var3) {
			throw new IllegalStateException("Unable create a default ApplicationContext, please specify an ApplicationContextClass", var3);
		}
	}

	return (ConfigurableApplicationContext)BeanUtils.instantiateClass(contextClass);
}

这里会创建AnnotationConfigServletWebServerApplicationContext类。
而AnnotationConfigServletWebServerApplicationContext类继承了ServletWebServerApplicationContext,而这个类是最终集成了AbstractApplicationContext。

刷新上下文

//SpringApplication.java
//刷新上下文
private void refreshContext(ConfigurableApplicationContext context) {
	this.refresh(context);
	if (this.registerShutdownHook) {
		try {
			context.registerShutdownHook();
		} catch (AccessControlException var3) {
		}
	}
}

//这里直接调用最终父类AbstractApplicationContext.refresh()方法
protected void refresh(ApplicationContext applicationContext) {
	((AbstractApplicationContext)applicationContext).refresh();
}
//AbstractApplicationContext.java
public void refresh() throws BeansException, IllegalStateException {
	synchronized(this.startupShutdownMonitor) {
		this.prepareRefresh();
		ConfigurableListableBeanFactory beanFactory = this.obtainFreshBeanFactory();
		this.prepareBeanFactory(beanFactory);

		try {
			this.postProcessBeanFactory(beanFactory);
			this.invokeBeanFactoryPostProcessors(beanFactory);
			this.registerBeanPostProcessors(beanFactory);
			this.initMessageSource();
			this.initApplicationEventMulticaster();
			//调用各个子类的onRefresh()方法,也就说这里要回到子类:ServletWebServerApplicationContext,调用该类的onRefresh()方法
			this.onRefresh();
			this.registerListeners();
			this.finishBeanFactoryInitialization(beanFactory);
			this.finishRefresh();
		} catch (BeansException var9) {
			this.destroyBeans();
			this.cancelRefresh(var9);
			throw var9;
		} finally {
			this.resetCommonCaches();
		}

	}
}
//ServletWebServerApplicationContext.java
//在这个方法里看到了熟悉的面孔,this.createWebServer,神秘的面纱就要揭开了。
protected void onRefresh() {
	super.onRefresh();
	try {
		this.createWebServer();
	} catch (Throwable var2) {
		
	}
}

//ServletWebServerApplicationContext.java
//这里是创建webServer,但是还没有启动tomcat,这里是通过ServletWebServerFactory创建,那么接着看下ServletWebServerFactory
private void createWebServer() {
	WebServer webServer = this.webServer;
	ServletContext servletContext = this.getServletContext();
	if (webServer == null && servletContext == null) {
		ServletWebServerFactory factory = this.getWebServerFactory();
		this.webServer = factory.getWebServer(new ServletContextInitializer[]{this.getSelfInitializer()});
	} else if (servletContext != null) {
		try {
			this.getSelfInitializer().onStartup(servletContext);
		} catch (ServletException var4) {
		
		}
	}

	this.initPropertySources();
}

//接口
public interface ServletWebServerFactory {
    WebServer getWebServer(ServletContextInitializer... initializers);
}

//实现
AbstractServletWebServerFactory
JettyServletWebServerFactory
TomcatServletWebServerFactory
UndertowServletWebServerFactory

这里ServletWebServerFactory接口有4个实现类
QQ截图20190820132505.jpg
而其中我们常用的有两个:TomcatServletWebServerFactory和JettyServletWebServerFactory。

//TomcatServletWebServerFactory.java
//这里我们使用的tomcat,所以我们查看TomcatServletWebServerFactory。到这里总算是看到了tomcat的踪迹。
@Override
public WebServer getWebServer(ServletContextInitializer... initializers) {
	Tomcat tomcat = new Tomcat();
	File baseDir = (this.baseDirectory != null) ? this.baseDirectory : createTempDir("tomcat");
	tomcat.setBaseDir(baseDir.getAbsolutePath());
    //创建Connector对象
	Connector connector = new Connector(this.protocol);
	tomcat.getService().addConnector(connector);
	customizeConnector(connector);
	tomcat.setConnector(connector);
	tomcat.getHost().setAutoDeploy(false);
	configureEngine(tomcat.getEngine());
	for (Connector additionalConnector : this.additionalTomcatConnectors) {
		tomcat.getService().addConnector(additionalConnector);
	}
	prepareContext(tomcat.getHost(), initializers);
	return getTomcatWebServer(tomcat);
}

protected TomcatWebServer getTomcatWebServer(Tomcat tomcat) {
	return new TomcatWebServer(tomcat, getPort() >= 0);
}

//Tomcat.java
//返回Engine容器,看到这里,如果熟悉tomcat源码的话,对engine不会感到陌生。
public Engine getEngine() {
    Service service = getServer().findServices()[0];
    if (service.getContainer() != null) {
        return service.getContainer();
    }
    Engine engine = new StandardEngine();
    engine.setName( "Tomcat" );
    engine.setDefaultHost(hostname);
    engine.setRealm(createDefaultRealm());
    service.setContainer(engine);
    return engine;
}
//Engine是最高级别容器,Host是Engine的子容器,Context是Host的子容器,Wrapper是Context的子容器

getWebServer这个方法创建了Tomcat对象,并且做了两件重要的事情:把Connector对象添加到tomcat中,configureEngine(tomcat.getEngine());
           getWebServer方法返回的是TomcatWebServer。

//TomcatWebServer.java
//这里调用构造函数实例化TomcatWebServer
public TomcatWebServer(Tomcat tomcat, boolean autoStart) {
	Assert.notNull(tomcat, "Tomcat Server must not be null");
	this.tomcat = tomcat;
	this.autoStart = autoStart;
	initialize();
}

private void initialize() throws WebServerException {
    //在控制台会看到这句日志
	logger.info("Tomcat initialized with port(s): " + getPortsDescription(false));
	synchronized (this.monitor) {
		try {
			addInstanceIdToEngineName();

			Context context = findContext();
			context.addLifecycleListener((event) -> {
				if (context.equals(event.getSource()) && Lifecycle.START_EVENT.equals(event.getType())) {
					removeServiceConnectors();
				}
			});

			//===启动tomcat服务===
			this.tomcat.start();

			rethrowDeferredStartupExceptions();

			try {
				ContextBindings.bindClassLoader(context, context.getNamingToken(), getClass().getClassLoader());
			}
			catch (NamingException ex) {
                
			}
            
            //开启阻塞非守护进程
			startDaemonAwaitThread();
		}
		catch (Exception ex) {
			stopSilently();
			destroySilently();
			throw new WebServerException("Unable to start embedded Tomcat", ex);
		}
	}
}
//Tomcat.java
public void start() throws LifecycleException {
	getServer();
	server.start();
}
//这里server.start又会回到TomcatWebServer的
public void stop() throws LifecycleException {
	getServer();
	server.stop();
}
//TomcatWebServer.java
//启动tomcat服务
@Override
public void start() throws WebServerException {
	synchronized (this.monitor) {
		if (this.started) {
			return;
		}
		try {
			addPreviouslyRemovedConnectors();
			Connector connector = this.tomcat.getConnector();
			if (connector != null && this.autoStart) {
				performDeferredLoadOnStartup();
			}
			checkThatConnectorsHaveStarted();
			this.started = true;
			//在控制台打印这句日志,如果在yml设置了上下文,这里会打印
			logger.info("Tomcat started on port(s): " + getPortsDescription(true) + " with context path '"
					+ getContextPath() + "'");
		}
		catch (ConnectorStartFailedException ex) {
			stopSilently();
			throw ex;
		}
		catch (Exception ex) {
			throw new WebServerException("Unable to start embedded Tomcat server", ex);
		}
		finally {
			Context context = findContext();
			ContextBindings.unbindClassLoader(context, context.getNamingToken(), getClass().getClassLoader());
		}
	}
}

//关闭tomcat服务
@Override
public void stop() throws WebServerException {
	synchronized (this.monitor) {
		boolean wasStarted = this.started;
		try {
			this.started = false;
			try {
				stopTomcat();
				this.tomcat.destroy();
			}
			catch (LifecycleException ex) {
				
			}
		}
		catch (Exception ex) {
			throw new WebServerException("Unable to stop embedded Tomcat", ex);
		}
		finally {
			if (wasStarted) {
				containerCounter.decrementAndGet();
			}
		}
	}
}

附:tomcat顶层结构图

20180109094904328.jpg
      tomcat最顶层容器是Server,代表着整个服务器,一个Server包含多个Service。从上图可以看除Service主要包括多个Connector和一个Container。Connector用来处理连接相关的事情,并提供Socket到Request和Response相关转化。Container用于封装和管理Servlet,以及处理具体的Request请求。那么上文提到的Engine>Host>Context>Wrapper容器又是怎么回事呢? 我们来看下图:
20180109095032618.jpg
      综上所述,一个tomcat只包含一个Server,一个Server可以包含多个Service,一个Service只有一个Container,但有多个Connector,这样一个服务可以处理多个连接。
      多个Connector和一个Container就形成了一个Service,有了Service就可以对外提供服务了,但是Service要提供服务又必须提供一个宿主环境,那就非Server莫属了,所以整个tomcat的声明周期都由Server控制。

总结

SpringBoot的启动主要是通过实例化SpringApplication来启动的,启动过程主要做了以下几件事情:配置属性、获取监听器,发布应用开始启动事件初、始化输入参数、配置环境,输出banner、创建上下文、预处理上下文、刷新上下文、再刷新上下文、发布应用已经启动事件、发布应用启动完成事件。在SpringBoot中启动tomcat的工作在刷新上下这一步。而tomcat的启动主要是实例化两个组件:Connector、Container,一个tomcat实例就是一个Server,一个Server包含多个Service,也就是多个应用程序,每个Service包含多个Connector和一个Container,而一个Container下又包含多个子容器。

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